The Effect of UV-Induced Gene Activation On Photo Skin Aging

The primary mechanism of UV-induced skin aging is mediated by the generation and accumulation of free radicals including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). ROS or free radicals not only can damage proteins, DNA, cellular membrane and … Continue reading

ROS and UV Induced Mitochondria DNA Mutation and Common Deletion In Skin

Mitochondria are cellular organelles that produce energy (ATP) by consuming oxygen. In the chronological aging process, mitochondria not only produce less ATP, but they also increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as by-products of aerobic metabolism, particularly during … Continue reading

AP-1 Signaling Activates MMP in Chronological and Photo Skin Aging

The activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a heterodimeric transcription factor belonging to the c-Fos, c-Jun, ATF and JDP families. It regulates and activates genes in response to a variety of stimuli including stress, pathogen infections, cytokines, growth factors. AP-1 thereby … Continue reading

Types of Collagen In Skin Layer And In Skin Aging

What is Collagen Collagen, a group of naturally occurring proteins and the main component of connective tissue, is the most abundant protein making up 25% to 35% of the whole-body protein content. Collagen fibers (fine fibers about 1 nm in … Continue reading

Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) And MMP Inhibitors In Wrinkle Creams

Matrix MetalloProteinases (MMPs) are endopeptidases – a subfamily of proteolytic enzymes or proteases – that are capable of degrading proteins into recyclable fragments. MMPs in the skin regulate the balance of synthesis and breakdown of extracellular matrix proteins such as … Continue reading