The Nonenzymatic Antioxidant Systems In Aging Skin

The free radical theory of aging established the role of oxidative stress as one of the main causes of aging and skin aging. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) – produced as byproduct of oxidative energy metabolism and induced by external factors … Continue reading

AP-1 Signaling Activates MMP in Chronological and Photo Skin Aging

The activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a heterodimeric transcription factor belonging to the c-Fos, c-Jun, ATF and JDP families. It regulates and activates genes in response to a variety of stimuli including stress, pathogen infections, cytokines, growth factors. AP-1 thereby … Continue reading

Nrf2 Signaling Coordinates Oxidative Stress Induced Activation of Antioxidant Enzyme Genes

Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of various age-related diseases and skin aging. Supraphysiological levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS)—such as hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anions, and hydroxyl radicals—severely damage proteins, DNA, and lipids, which results in further … Continue reading

The Antioxidant Enzymes Network of The Skin

The physiological cellular respiration located at mitochondria is always comes with the byproduct of the aerobic metabolism where a small fraction of the oxygen is constantly converted to superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, and other ROS. Although within a … Continue reading

Telomere Length of the Skin in Association with Chronological Aging and Photoaging

The cellular telomere length has been the predictor of life span according to the telomere theory of aging. Telomere is the region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from … Continue reading

Why Antioxidants Also Provide Anti-Inflammatory Protection For The Skin?

Antioxidants are a group of important ingredients for anti-aging skin care because of their ability to neutralize the free radical damage of cells and macromolecules (protein, DNA, lipids). – Free radical damage was one of the first processes associated with … Continue reading