UV-Induced Neutrophil Infiltration and Increased MMP Secretion in Photo Skin Aging

The primary mechanism of photo skin aging is mediated by UV induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS damages biomacromolecules and function as intracellular signal to activate transcription factors AP-1 and NF-kB . AP-1 And NF-kB are known to regulate a … Continue reading

NF-kB and AP-1 Molecular Signaling Mechanisms of Intrinsic And Extrinsic Skin Aging

The molecular signaling pathways associated with skin aging is most and initially studied in the photo skin aging. Numerous researches published combined the pieces of discovery into an general overview picture about what occurred molecularly in photo skin aging. It … Continue reading

Decreased Expression of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases (TIMP) In Chronologic Aged Skin

Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) is a group of endogenous enzymes that inhibit the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which is a group of peptidases involved in degradation of the extracellular matrix. . There are four different TIMP identified – … Continue reading

The Role of Fibroblasts In Skin Aging

Fibroblasts are the most common cells of connective tissue that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and play a critical role in wound healing. Fibroblasts make and secrete collagens, elastin, ground substances such as glycosaminoglycans, glycoproteins found in the extracellular matrix and … Continue reading

Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) And MMP Inhibitors In Wrinkle Creams

Matrix MetalloProteinases (MMPs) are endopeptidases – a subfamily of proteolytic enzymes or proteases – that are capable of degrading proteins into recyclable fragments. MMPs in the skin regulate the balance of synthesis and breakdown of extracellular matrix proteins such as … Continue reading